3D modelling and animation. This is used for animating photographic imagery (see Image Animations), compositing 3D elements into photographs (often using image-based lighting - see below), and producing 3D imagery to enhance multimedia projects.

Photogrammetry: generating a 3D model from photographs, as in the examples below of a replica of an ancient Greek sculpture and a Roman theatre mask.

See the 360° Objects section for a photographic object movie of this object.

See also the Other Imagery/slit-scan section for a 360° peripheral image.

Below, two objects also made using photogrammetry: the skulls of a cat (top) and a seal.

rendered cat skull object

rendered cat skull object

A 360° object movie made from photographs of the cat skull can be viewed in the 360° Objects section.

Below, two old books similarly modelled. Click for a larger version.

render of two books

Model of an antique pot

Click anywhere on the image below for a 360° interactive object 'movie' of this object.

Parthenon model: made as the basis for an interactive object 'movie' to display elements of the temple's surviving sculptural decoration - the pediment sculptures, the metopes and the frieze, rendered as photographic 'textures' superimposed on the the stylised architectural elements.

Herculaneum house plan model: one of a series of stylised, simplified, 'extruded' house plans (in this case, of the two-storey Casa a Graticcio) made for inclusion in the book Herculaneum Past and Future by Andrew Wallace-Hadrill.

Roman theatre model: a simplified, untextured model of a Roman theatre.

Image Based Lighting: Spherical photographic panoramas in 32-bit High Dynamic Range format can be used to light a 3D model or scene (in the examples below, a reflective sphere is included in the render to give a sense of the HDR light source). Moreover, very realistic images can be made where a 3D element has been rendered in this way, and then inserted into a photograph made under the same lighting conditions.

The composite images below contain a roughly 50/50 mix of real and 3D-modelled objects, the latter rendered using image-based lighting.

Virtual museum gallery from Selinus Observed project. This rotunda model formed the basis for an interactive panorama of a virtual museum space, containing thirty-six artefacts which could be selected and examined in turn as ‘object movies’. At top: a typical view in rectilinear perspective; at right: a wireframe render seen from the ‘outside’; bottom: the entire interior rendered as a 360x180-degree equirectangular projection.

Berm tunnel with projections from Selinus Observed project. A still frame from the opening title sequence.

Through a looking glass: below, a still frame from one of a series of 3D-modelled animations made for a PhD candidate in Optometry studying neuropsychological development of young children. Used as part of a screen-based programme for testing two-year-olds.